Adolf Hitler, the leader of a country rich in culture in the center of Europe. A person who is incapable of normal human relations, lacking all compassion, is filled with hatred and prejudice. Here, long before World War II Hitler was talking ruthlessly about his political opponents, the Wernichettearth destroyed.
Hitler’s hatred would lead to the Holocaust, his desire for victory would destroy much of Europe. Yet, this was a man who was so full of anger, who was once loved by millions. Here in the mountains of southern Germany, during the 1930s, there was a pilgrimage site. On the slopes of the Obersalzburg was the house of Adolf Hitler. Berghoff. And that’s exactly what a lot of people thought of him.
The man gave such charisma that people believed whatever he said. But the truth is that Hitler did not hypnotize the German people in any way. There is a history to this that shows how charisma is created in a relationship. Hitler said that the Germans he considered to be racially pure were better than anyone else and that many Germans believed in him.
Hitler, who had always been full of hatred, managed to forge ties with millions of Germans, and in the process, this seemingly impossible figure, evokes a level of charismatic charm that has almost no parallel in history. Munich, in southern Germany. In 1913 the home of a strange twenty-four-year-old Austrian, at the time no one who was considered even remotely charismatic, Adolf Hitler. He rented a room from a tailor, and likewise, scattered photographs of a surviving Munich painting for tourists.
He felt bitter and angry that his dreams of being a great artist had been in vain. A previous flatmate, August Kubiek, described Hitler as such.
He would pour out his anger on everything, pouring out the stream of hatred. And Hitler almost certainly would have remained an unknown painter if it were not for a significant event in world history. First World War. Hitler, as an ordinary soldier, fought in these areas in France. Shrapnel was bursting left and right, and in the middle there was a whistle of English gunfire. But we don’t care that each of us has only one wish _ to settle the score once and for all with that gang, whatever the cost.
Although brave he won the iron crosshis comrades still found Hitler a bit strange. One of them, Balthasar said—but what is extraordinary is that the qualities that made Hitler look so distinctive to his comrades soon helped him appear charismatic to thousands. Hitler’s character never really changed, but the situation changed when Germany lost the war. The war ended in November 1918. More than two million Germans were killed in this war and what their sacrifice achieved was a humiliating defeat.
This lost war was followed by riots in the streets of Germany and the Socialist Revolution in Berlin. Some of the leaders of the revolution effort were Jews. A fact that fueled anti-Semitic prejudice, especially among many with the right to German politics. Thousands of ex-servicemen formed para-military groups called Freikorps to fight the revolution.
And these Freikorps already had many ideas and beliefs which were later adopted by Hitler. Many Freikorps were extremely anti-Semitic. Believing in the fiction that Jews were responsible for both communism and Germany’s defeat in the war.
And one of the most infamous Freakcorps groups even adapted what they take to be a racist symbol _ Heckenkretz. Or the swastika. The members of the Freikorps called their leaders ‘Fuhrers’. And many of those who later became discredited as Nazis joined FreeCorps. Like Heinrich Heimler, who would go on to head the SS. Gregor Strasser, one of the most important early leaders of the Nazi Party. and Rudolf Haus, future commandant of Auschwitz. But Hitler was not in the Freikorps, he was back in Munich. Devastated by the defeat of the war and desperate to remain in the army.
He seemed lost and directionless. Captain Karl Meyer, known to Hitler in May 1919. At this point Hitler was ready to throw his lot with anyone who would show him mercy. But Meyer discovered Hitler’s qualities that he could use.
He decided to train Hitler as a propaganda agent. Here at the University of Munich, Hitler was sent on a short course and then began giving right-wing speeches to his fellow soldiers, warning of the dangers of communism. Only at this point does Hitler’s thinking seem to crystallize. How many of these ideas were already hidden within him is still a matter of debate, but it is certain that in the summer of 1919 he becomes convinced of his beliefs.
In September 1919, he wrote a letter, in which Hitler called for the removal of Jews from Germany and a ‘government of national power’. Now, at the age of 30, Hitler had found his mission in life. And this mission was the first part of his charismatic appeal. Hitler joined the German Workers’ Party, one of a large number of far-right groups in Munich at the time, and began speaking at meetings in beer halls. As joyful and dramatic as his speeches appear to us today, his performances at that time soon saw him in Munich. He seemed able to convey the anger felt by many, as well as his willingness to blame someone else for the problems Germany was facing – the Jews in particular.
This 1933 speech shows how Hitler’s own hatred connected with the audience. Many now shared Hitler’s distorted prejudices, and his intolerance was taken as a strength of character. Hans Frank, who would later become a prominent Nazi, first heard Hitler speak in 1920. Everything came from the heart, and he harmonized with all of us. He said what was in the consciousness of everyone present. This is an important insight into charisma. Because charisma does not exist in itself. It exists only in a conversation between a person and an audience.
A man like Hitler who was telling the audience what they wanted to hear. Many of them yearned for a charismatic leader to lift them out of misery. German history was rich in the stories of such heroes. Here amid the mountains surrounding Hitler’s home, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was, according to legend, asleep – waiting to wake up and fight his final battle. And one of the most popular tourist attractions of the time was this monument, completed in 1875, to Hermann, a tribal leader who led the Germans’ victory over the Romans nearly two thousand years earlier.
This later engraving claims a direct connection between Hitler and Hermann. Both were portrayed as German heroes. And Hermann was so important to the Nazis, that Heinrich Heimler took control of the nearby Wevelsberg castle in the 1930s, intending to make the place a center of power. In the crypt of the palace, Hemler wanted to hold pagan ceremonies under the lighting of an eternal flame.
Above the crypt was a hall, in which the old warriors met like knights. Always under his heroic mentor Adolf Hitler. He is indeed a great person and above all a true and pure person. Himmler believed that just as Hermann had once proved to be a superior kind of Germanic hero 2,000 years ago, so Adolf Hitler would prove to be a similar hero today.
The political climate in Munich in 1923 was tense and unstable. By now Hitler had been the leader of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, which some called the Nazis, for two years. And he created a large and growing paramilitary organization – the stormtroopers. In November 1923 he decided to take up acting, and tried to revolt in Munich. On November 9, the Nazis marched on these streets, but were stopped by the police. Here on the corner of Feldrenhaal. Shots were exchanged. Four police and sixteen Nazis were killed that day. The rebellion, or rebellion, was an inefficient and violent attempt to overthrow a democratic state. But Hitler managed to turn this into a heroic myth.
Filmed after the Nazis came to power, this annual re-enactment of the march shows how Hitler tried to create that myth. Every Nazi killed in Put was turned into a martyr. His flag became a sacred relic. The place where he was shot became a holy place. Those present took blessings. Hitler wanted to show how his devoted disciples died for a noble cause – a cause that epitomized his single, heroic leader.
Back in 1924, Hitler received the minimum possible sentence for his part in the putsch from a sympathetic judge and was sent to Landsberg Prison. Here he wrote a book Main Kampf_or My Struggle. In this he sought to show that he had the next important element needed for a charismatic leader – how the world is and how it should be. a cruel sight. He who wants to live must fight, and he who does not want to fight in this world of eternal conflict, does not deserve to live.
Hitler believed that the fact that we are animals was the most important thing about us, and that the so-called Aryan Germans were superior animals, in Hitler’s view from Kampf after the Nazis came to power in the 1930s. This hype was expressed in the film. Once in power, Hitler introduced compulsory sterilization for select disabled Germans. Later, he would authorize the murder of thousands of them. On 20 December 1924, Hitler was released from the Landsberg prison and began trying to rebuild the Nazi Party. Despite writing Mein Kampf, Hitler’s charismatic credentials as a revolutionary were still largely based on his reputation as an orator.
This series of studio photographs taken later in the 1920s show how he attempted to showcase his dynamic image. Hitler worked hard to try to appear charismatic. This 1930s collection shows him using his stare to try to create an effect. He maintained eye contact for longer than usual. A Nazi supporter later claimed that he felt it when he saw it was one of the most curious moments of my life.
The gaze, which had previously been completely fixed on me, suddenly went through me and into an unknown distance. It was very strange. As small as the Nazi Party was at the time this footage was shot in the 1920s, most of the elements that came together to see Hitler as the leader of Charisma were already in place. His mission _ to create a racist, Aryan Germany state, which he created with his audience through his speeches; He claims that he has strength because he was a perfect war hero; His Darwinian vision developed into Kampf which also included the notion that Jews and Communists should be blamed for everything.
But still, if you weren’t willing to accept Hitler’s ideas beforehand, you might have thought they had no charisma. I immediately disliked him because of his hoarse voice. He shouted out really, really simple political ideas. I thought he was not normal at all. He put forward some claims which were by no means valid and I told my friend – my impression after that speech is that this man Hitler will never come to political power.
And in 1928 it looked like he never would. Most of the people in Germany were completely immune to Hitler’s charisma. The Nazis received only 2.6% of the vote in the May 1928 election. Hitler’s appeal began to be felt beyond just a small group of radicals in the face of an economic catastrophe. The German economy collapsed after the Wall Street crash of 1929. The Weimar government had borrowed money to pay the Allies’ war reparations and now the debt has become too much to service. Banks crashed, and unemployment soared. The Nazis found support, but so did the Communists.
It was a ray of hope that socialism would come, unemployment would be eradicated, the right to get jobs and higher wages would be available. Fighting between Nazis and communists had almost become commonplace in beer halls. Stormtroopers had a large glass in front, practically a missile. The fighting was fierce, many people were hospitalized, some were stormy soldiers, they had wounds on their faces. I had a wound on my head, it was bleeding. In this climate of violence and political crisis, Hitler openly called for the destruction of democracy.
We aimed to have a strong man thing, and we had such a strong man. Nazi supporters, people were literally hungry in the 1930s. It was very, very difficult. And in that context, Hitler seemed to be the savior with his statements. Hitler’s Nazi supporters of the 1930s did not somehow charm their new followers into acting against their will. In this hopeless situation, he chose to trust a leader he believed had charisma. But not everyone thought that Hitler was the solution to Germany’s problems. President Hindenburg certainly was not.
Even though in 1932 the Nazis became the largest party in Germany. He refused to make Hitler chancellor, calling him a ‘bohemian corporal’. Hitler was offered the job of chancellor but he refused to take it. And some of his supporters saw his stubbornness as heroic. Hitler holds his vein, he is above conspiracies. I love him when he is like that. But there were some in the German elite who began to think that appointing Hitler as chancellor could be a way out of Germany’s problems.
The aristocrat, Franz von Papen, himself a former chancellor, thought Hitler could be a useful man. He did not find Hitler charismatic, but “curiously ineffective”. The thing they feared the most was not Hitler, but the Communists. And so, von Papen and his friends supported the idea of making Hitler chancellor, as long as there were only a few other Nazis in the cabinet. On 30 January 1933, after lobbying by von Papen and others, Hitler was appointed chancellor by President Hindenburg.
For Hitler’s supporters, it was by far the strongest proof of his power as a charismatic leader. When it seemed impossible that he would become chancellor, and many doubted him, he asked him to believe him. And now it was Chancellor von Papen, who, happy to see democracy disappear, became the Chancellor. He still thought that he and his friends could control Hitler. They will soon learn that they have made the biggest mistakes in history. Hitler spoke to the German nation as chancellor on 10 February 1933. There were thousands of people in the hall before him, and millions were listening on the radio.
But Hitler made them all wait. When he started, Hitler stuck to his old familiar script. His speech was vague in detail and called on the Germans to fix their problems without outside help. But if Hitler did not consider you a true German, then suddenly you are at risk. The Nazis viewed thousands of people as enemies of the new regime, most of them political opponents, but also some Jews – who were imprisoned in concentration camps. This one in the Dachau outside Munich was opened just weeks after Hitler became chancellor.
To begin with, the concentration camps were under the control of a Nazi storm. Here they are doing a parade of victory through Berlin. But his ordered marching hid a chaotic and violent reality. Everyone is arresting everyone else and avoiding the prescribed official channels. Everyone is threatening everyone with protective custody. Everyone is threatening each other with Dachau. These concentration camps were not yet places of mass murder, but they were brutal to the extreme. Many prisoners were murdered, and torture – often psychological torture – was common. I was thrown into the bunker and chained. We only get something to eat every fourth day. Other than that there was only a jug of water and bread. After four days he said “you are leaving tomorrow” but he was playing with me. They kept saying “you will get out” nothing. Throughout Germany, the reality was clear – Hitler led a movement of violent revolutionaries and was brutally suppressing any opposition. But now that he was chancellor, Hitler also wanted the support of all those who lived in this country whom he considered to be true Germans.
The Nazi stormtroopers were still as prepared to shed the blood of their enemies as they always were. So how could Hitler profit from the brutality of his stormtroopers and not be blamed for it? An early indication of how Hitler would attempt this deception was shown in just two months into his chancellery. Hitler’s anti-Semitic prejudice knew no bounds. And on April 1, 1933, with Hitler’s approval, the Nazis boycotted Jewish shops and businesses that lasted a day. I felt as if I was falling into a deep pit. It was then that I first instinctively realized that the existing law did not apply to Jews. You could do whatever you wanted with the Jews.
A Jew was a robber. But because Hitler did not know how to react to all this, especially abroad, he did not want his name to be associated with it. The document calling for the boycott was signed only by the “leadership of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party”. But Hitler was worried that the storm was getting out of his control. He himself was becoming a threat to the government. Hitler told them that the revolution was over. But Stormtroopers always wanted to advance the revolution and lived up to the words of the Nazi anthem, written by Stormtrooper Horst Wessel.
Their leader, Ernst Röhm, even wanted the stormtroopers to take over the German army. But the regular army wanted nothing to do with this bunch of thugs. One dismissed stormtroopers because of their behavior. Well, in the end it can almost be said that most soldiers hated stormtroopers. But Hitler realized that he could turn all this to his advantage. And change the way millions of people see him as a leader.
He just had to be cold hearted and ruthless. On 30 June 1934, Hitler visited the banks of the Tegensee and the health resort of Bad Wissee in Bavaria. Röhm and the senior leadership of the stormtroopers were here on holiday at the hotel then called the Hanselbauer. Hitler and his team arrived at six thirty in the morning. Hitler went up the stairs through the hotel lobby to the first floor, where Röhm was sleeping in this room. After Hitler claimed that Röhm was plotting a coup against him, he arrested his old comrade along with the other leaders of the storm.
Rohm was shot two days later. Not only did Hitler kill Röhm but at least a hundred others thought he opposed him. But it all worked to his advantage. Because he had now clearly dealt with disorganized elements in his own party, many Germans first began to see him as the leader of the nation, and not just as the leader of the Nazis. On 2 August 1934, exactly one month after Röhm’s assassination, each member of the German armed forces was ordered to personally take an oath of allegiance to Hitler.
President Hindenburg had just died, and Hitler was now head of state as well as chancellor. Just a few weeks later, in September 1934, Hitler was here in Nuremberg for a Nazi Party rally. The Nazis first held a rally in Nuremberg in 1927. But this rally will be remembered more than any other and will play an important part in the creation of a Hitler myth. Because this rally was filmed for the feature length documentary “Triumph of the Will”. Hitler was portrayed as an innocent, almost godlike leader, who descended from the clouds to meet his adored subjects. Thanks to the “Victory of Desire”, not only those physically present experienced the emotional impact of seeing their leader.
Now, millions more could see a carefully crafted vision of Hitler in cinemas. For me the Führer was a non-violent personality _ the Führer of the German Reich. The one to whom Providence had given so many gifts. The one who was so powerful that he could revolve around millions. There was a desire to put power in the hands of a man who says we’ll do it, and we’ll be successful only when we all have our sleeves up. It made you sick but at the same time it was attractive. Hitler didn’t promise anything.
It was always “only for the German people” and “we have to free the people from Marxism”. I only admired the technology, the fact that Hitler managed to speak to them _ almost all of them _ under one roof. to pull them together. People said that Hitler was influenced by a magnet that was passing over the heads of the German people. But despite this level of admiration, Hitler had not changed – he was as full of hatred as ever and was leading the regime. In the same year the victory of the will _ 1934 _ Alois Fowler was made, a German communist was taken in for questioning by the Nazis’ secret police _ the Gestapo. He hit me in the face.
for three hours. always on my face. Meanwhile my eardrum had burst, so I heard an incredible racket. This roar was an unbelievable roar so now you couldn’t understand anything exactly. When Alois was bleeding heavily, the Gestapo wiped his blood off the floor before sending him to a concentration camp. This was because such persecution, for the most part, did not harm Hitler among the general public, as the perception of many Germans was that Hitler was using violence to bring about order.
The first communists and social democrats were put out in the beginning, I saw it myself, Laurie. It didn’t make us think. After all, he was the enemy of the public. Hitler was mostly careful to act against those groups of German society against whom many other Germans were already prejudiced – such as Jews and Communists. Hitler was aware that as a charismatic leader, the more carefully defined enemies he would target, the better.
Less than 1 percent of Germans were Jewish, and few now dare to claim they were communists. So as long as they embraced the new world of Nazism, most Germans were not at risk of persecution. And as unemployment was falling and the economy was booming, many ordinary Germans now felt this was the start of a new, more optimistic era. At first you went ahead with a wave of hope, because we had it better. We had order in the country.
We had, well, security. In particular, the youth were taught the Nazi world view. Most importantly, that Hitler was an innocent leader. These members of the Hitler Youth were the future soldiers of Germany, to whom Hitler would seek full allegiance. We were hit in Hitler’s youth as well. Germany must survive, even if we die. I realized that the Hitler youth had a rude way for people to treat each other.
The practice was in a very unpleasant and violent manner. For example, we were told, “If your teachers haven’t understood this new age yet, hit them in the mouth! ”, Now that he was in power, many of those close to Hitler found that their faith in him had intensified. We love Adolf Hitler because we believe strongly and deeply that he was sent to save Germany to those of us who follow him, a quality that he does not possess the greatest perfection.
No one found it strange when Hitler told them that what they were doing would last for millennia. A foreign correspondent attending a 1934 rally wrote that some of those present saw Hitler as the Messiah. This was no accident. Hitler later spoke of being guided by a mysterious force he called ‘Providence’. And this belief in himself as a kind of Messiah was an important part of his charismatic appeal. Hitler’s birthday celebrated here in Berlin became a day of national joy. He was praised for trying to restore Germany’s greatness and for spending huge sums of money on Germany’s military in the process.
Hitler came to be seen as a leader who was far above the conflicts of daily life. As a result, it became possible for the Germans to dislike the particular Nazis they dealt with, and still respect Hitler. There is great sympathy among the population for the Führer and the Reich Chancellor, Adolf Hitler. I have never heard any negative remarks directed at his own person. Rather one hears now and then “Yes, if Hitler could do everything himself, some things would be different.” But he cannot keep an eye on everything. The myth that “if Hitler only knew about the unpopular aspects of the Nazi regime, he would have changed them, was a safety valve in the system; one who